Nigerian Biomedical Science Community on a Global Scale
Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, PhD
In the global quest to develop vaccines against COVID-19, the Nigerian Biomedical science community was under public scrutiny on social media. Series of debates on the quality and quantity of scientific contribution from the Nigerian biomedical scientists ensued. It is hard to arrive at a logical conclusion without some analyses on knowledge production in the biomedical fields, especially in terms of scientific publications. We used Scopus to analyse Nigeria's biomedical science contribution in comparison to countries in the global west.
Studies have shown that continuous heating and reheating of oil aids its transformation into trans fats, which not only raises the bad cholesterol - low density lipoprotein (LDL) - levels in the body, but also lowers the good cholesterol - high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. "The chemical changes that take place in reheating of cooking oils will increase the percentage of trans fats - a form of fat which is harmful to the body- thereby leading to an increase in the bad cholesterol profile known as low density lipoprotein (LDL)," The cholesterol usually formed from this fat travel to different parts of the body system through the blood, alongside the transportation of vitamins and minerals. However, once there's an increase in the bad cholesterol (LDL), it builds up on the walls of the blood vessels, thereby forming what is known as plaque,which overtime narrows the blood vessels leading to different health risks especially, heart related diseases.
Hope Rises for Beans Farmers In Nigeria’s North East, As Scientist Works on Solution to Reduce Pre-Harvest Losses
Femi Bolaji FASLN
In Nigeria’s North East where Beans are mostly cultivated, farmers have identified Cowpea Witchweed as a major cause of their pre-harvest losses. The pest, which is referred to as ‘WutaWuta’ (Fire-Fire) in their local Hausa language was drawn from the ravaging effect of the pest on its host (beans seedling). Recurrent losses over the years have discouraged many farmers in this region from cultivating the legume, while others who manage to farm sell their harvest at exorbitant prices to recoup losses.
Frontline Health Workers Training: Key To Improving Maternal Health
Isaac Ejakhebe FASLN
In Nigeria, maternal and child mortality rates are especially high: According to the WHO the country contributes nearly 20 percent of global maternal deaths with 800 deaths per 10000 live births. Approximately 262,000 babies die at birth annually, the world’s second highest national total. Infant and child mortality is only one adverse outcome associated with maternal death. In 2015 an estimated 58 000 maternal deaths occurred. By comparison, the total number of maternal deaths the same year in the 46 most developed countries was 1700, resulting in a maternal mortality ratio of 12 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. While there is a clear understanding of the interventions needed in the country, there is a gap especially in the facilities in the skillset of basic and comprehensive emergency and newborn care (BEmONC & CEmONC).
Combatting The Challenge Of Consuming Beef With Antimicrobial Residue
Samuel Oyejola FASLN and Dr Zarah Yusuf FASLN
How dangerous are beef consumed in Nigeria? Researchers and veterinary experts in the country are at parallel decisions on this matter. According to study, about 1.3 million cattle are slaughtered for consumption in the country with majority of it coming from abattoirs and butchers houses across the country. For researchers and veterinary experts, the bone of contention is the danger pose by the antimicrobial residue in beef due to antibiotics and other drugs administered to cattle before taken to slaughter houses.
Tuberculosis for a long time is a public health challenge in Nigeria. It is one communicable disease that has claimed lives and has continued to claim lives among humans. However for animals, there are revelations that bovine TB, a form of Tuberculosis found in cattle is becoming epidemic in the country among humans. This challenge pose not a little set back to the combined effort of the government and development partners to eradicate the disease in the country by 2030.
The cause of the increased miscarriages is therefore not farfetched. This could result from Q Fever. Also called query fever, Q Fever is a bacterial infection caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii most commonly found in cattle, sheep, and goats around the world. “Q Fever is a factor that can lead to miscarriages, especially when bacteria in an environment contaminated with secreta and excreta of infected animals are aerosolized. It can also be contacted by humans when there is any direct contact with infected animal,” Dr. Felicia Agbo explained to the ASLN Fellows.
The poultry waste dumpsites of Idi Ayunre and environs: Reservoirs and distributors of disease-causing antibiotic resistant pathogens
Sunday Omeike, PhD, FASLN
Poultry business is a major contributor to Nigeria’s economy and source of meats and eggs for domestic and commercial purposes. A 2018 FAO report estimated over 180 million birds mostly in semi-intensive and intensive farms, and Netherlands Enterprise Agency’s recent report says they contribute approximately 25% to Nigeria’s agricultural GDP. This increasing economic importance of poultry farms, which could be said to be partially fuelled by antibiotic usage for health and weight gain, also leads to concomitant increase in poultry waste (litter) generated and disposed of into the environment. While antibiotic usage cannot be quantified without hard evidence, its effect can be tracked in poultry litter, as evident in Idi Ayunre town and its several adjoining communities.
Covid-19: How relaxing ban on gatherings might have triggered second wave in Bauchi and other states
Charles Agwam FASLN
In 2016, Rainey et al., conducted a systematic literature review about mass gathering-related respiratory disease outbreaks occurring in the United States from 2005 to 2014 and found outbreaks of infectious diseases following 72 mass gathering events. In another study by Shi et al., 2010, using a computer model, it was suggested that mass gatherings can increase the peak of a pandemic by 10%. In other words, we are likely to have 10% more cases with mass gatherings than without. A survey across some Bauchi towns showed that, except for few people who still wear their nose mask, many have dropped all Covid-19 protocols that were earlier enforced like hand washing, social distancing and other safety precautions.